Parkinson’s Disease in Urdu
Parkinson’s disease is medical terminology; translated into every language according to their affiliation. Parkinson’s disease in Urdu is also named accordingly.
Parkinson’s Disease in Urdu = رعشہ
Definition of Parkinson’s disease in Urdu
رعشہ کا مرض ایک دماغی عارضہ ہے جس میں دماغ میں ڈوپامین کی کمی کی وجہ سے دماغی خلیے (نیورون) کی موت واقع ہو جاتی ہے اس ک نتیجے میں اعصابی خلل پیدا ہوتا ہے- رعشہ کے مریض کے افراد کے ہاتھ کانپتے ہیں اور جسمانی حرکات وسکنات میں واضح دشواری محسوس ہوتی ہے- چلنا، پھرنا، لکھنا، حتی کہ تمام افعال زندگی بری طرح سے متاثر ہوتے ہیں
Generally, Parkinson’s disease is also baffled with kapkapi as well. However, the correct unani name for Parkinson’s disease is Ra’asha (رعشہ). Parkinson’s disease meaning in urdu is explained above.
Ra’asha occurs because of the dryness of the organ and is untreatable.
Other Definitions of Parkinson’s Disease (Ra’asha)
- Parkinson’s disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that causes an inability in muscle movement.
- The imbalance between progressive dopamine and excitatory acetylcholine leads to the neuron’s defect. Thus, Parkinson’s disease is a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra, leading to altered motor movement.
- Parkinsonism is a progressive neurological disorder that causes slowed movement, tremors, and muscle rigidity.
Pathophysiology of Parkinson’s Disease (shaking palsy)
The pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease is related to dopaminergic neurons. When the loss of nerve cells in the brain area named substantia nigra occurs, it causes parkinsonism. In brief, neurons produce dopamine. However, dopamine plays an essential role in muscle movement and CNS functions. Moreover, People with PD also lose nerve endings that make norepinephrine. Norepinephrine also helps in the production of dopamine. In addition, it is the principal chemical messenger of the sympathetic nervous system.
Anatomically, the defect mainly occurs in the basal ganglia. The thalamus connects the cortex, and the brain stem is medial to basal ganglia. Above all, the basal ganglia are responsible for muscle tone and ease of movement. Moreover, it helps in smooth movement and also learned movement.
At first, the cortex sends signals to the basal ganglia. Eventually, the basal ganglia send back to the motor cortex. Indeed, it sends the signal to the spinal cord. Thus, it initiates smooth movement.
EndNote: Basal ganglia is disrupted in Parkinson’s disease.
Pathogenesis probably involves apoptosis or necrosis of dopaminergic neurons. However, neuron death is due to protein misfolding, aggregation, and toxicity. It can be due to defective proteolysis. It can also be due to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.
Signs and Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease
Cardinal symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are as follows
T Tremor (kapkapi) R Rigidity A Akinesia or ra’asha P Postural instability
Other signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are
- Handwriting issues occur in stage 3 parkinsonism. Generally, the writing size decrease, and it also becomes difficult for others to read. Thus, the preliminary sign of Ra’asha indicates impaired writing reflex.
- Hypomania comprises of disorder in moods. Mainly, it indicates a bipolar personality.
- Dysphasia is a language disorder that causes speech deficiency. In addition, it is a partial loss of understanding of language. Sometimes, it also causes trembling or lower voices.
- Hypophania leads to difficulty in communicating with others. Basically, it reduces the loudness and pitch variability of vocals.
- The visual problems generally lead to blurred vision and also eyelid opening apraxia.
- Abnormal gait mainly includes shuffling, festination, and freezing.
- Insomnia or trouble sleeping is observed in the early onset of Ra’asha.
- Sometimes, it also causes constipation.
- Dizziness or fainting and hunching are commonly observed.
- It also causes depression (Inkhifad) or other CNS disorders.
- Difficulty in swelling is commonly found in elder ages.
- loss of sense of smell also occur in moderate parkinson’s disease.
- memory problem (dementia) occur during the older age.
Onset of Parkinson’s disease
Parkinson’s disease usually occurs at old age. Around 1% of individuals get Parkinson’s disease at age above 65. By 2030, PD cases will be estimated double.
Around 0.3% of the population over the age has this disease. 7.5 million have this worldwide.
There are almost negligible cases before the age of 40.
Stages of Parkinson’s Disease (Ra’asha)
There are majorly five stages of Parkinson’s disease.
Causes of Parkinson’s Disease (Ra’asha)
Research is still conducted on the causes of Parkinsonism. But, there is still some evident research on the grounds of Parkinson’s disease.
Impairment or death of nerve cells
When the loss of nerve cells occurs in the brain area named substantia nigra causes Parkinson’s disease. In addition, the loss of nerve cells causes a reduction in the amount of dopamine. Still, the exact cause of nerve cell loss is unclear or missing.
Generally, the early onset of Parkinsonism is a genetic factor. Furthermore, it is caused due to impairment or decrease in alpha-synuclein protein. Thus, the protein causes genetic mutation, which leads to Ra’asha.
Primarily, environmental factors affect brain activity. Well, the toxins in the brain cause neuron death or impairment that lead to an inability of brain activity. Toxins are either present in the environment or occur within the body due to stress.
Avoid Risk Factors that cause Parkinson’s disease.
- Age is an inevitable process that ultimately leads to a neurodegenerative disorder. Thus, the neurological disorder may lead to Parkinson’s disease.
- Heredity is one of the most prominent reasons for having Parkinsonism. Heredity mutation can also cause Parkinson’s disease.
- One of the Gender has more likely to get Parkinsonism. Indeed, males are more likely to get it than women.
- The toxin is a prominent risk factor for neurological disorders. Whether it’s environmental or bodily toxins, both cause a high chance of the occurrence of Parkinsonism.
Unani Treatment for Parkinson’s Disease (Ra’asha)
There are various methods to treat Parkinsonism. Yet, the disease is better treated with a holistic approach as you know that there are also side effects of allopathic treatment. So, one should give a try to Unani medicine. Principles for Unani treatment for Ra’asha are as follows.
- Regimental therapy (Ilaj Bil Tadbeer)
- Diet therapy (Ilaj Bil Ghiza)
- Pharmacotherapy (Ilaj Bil Dawa)
Ilaj Bil Tadbeer for Parkinson’s Disease (Ra’asha)
Ilaj Bil Tadbeer comprises practices that occur in daily life, including daily habits, routine, and lifestyle. An appropriate lifestyle is a regimental therapy. However, a beneficial regimental therapy for treating Parkinson’s disease includes:
Riyazat is beneficial for maintaining a healthy body, hence a healthy lifestyle. In Parkinsonism (Ra’asha), exercise works better as it improves motility. Moreover, walking, jogging, swimming, or cycling is not just good for health but also help in treating tremor and postural inability. However, one needs to consult with a physiotherapist or healthcare professional. Still, a little exercise is fine to begin.
Sound Sleep & Proper Body Weight
Better sleep at night is good for health. Moreover, a proper sleep cycle plays a vital role in the functioning of the nervous system. To maintain a healthy body, one needs to keep an appropriate sleep cycle. Sleep removes the toxins from the brain consumed during the day.
Ideally, a human needs a 4 to 6 sleep cycle. Moreover, a sleep cycle consists of 90 minutes on average.
Research has stated that it is good to sleep between 8 PM to 12 AM for a healthy brain.
Not only does the sleep cycle matter, but body weight also matters. A proper diet and exercise help in maintaining body weight. Healthcare professionals recommend the Mediterranean diet for a healthy brain.
Ilaj Bil Ghiza for Parkinson’s disease (Ra’asha)
Ilaj Bil Ghiza treats the disease through a proper dietary intake. There are following dietary regimes you need to follow to treat dietary intake.
Don’t limit the diet (Ghiza)
Eat a variety of food that include proteins, vitamins, fats, and carbohydrates. Avoid specifics diets, i.e., fad diets or any other diet. Add a variety of grain products to your diet as it also helps in lowering cholesterol. However, balance your daily intake with exercise or physical activity as well.
Restrict your sugar
You need to take a proper check on your sugar intake as we all know that sugar contains more calories than nutrients. Sugars are harmful in many other prospectives as well.
Drink enough water
Our brain consists of 85% of the fluid. Indeed, drink six glasses of water for a healthy brain. Moroever, water helps in communicating with each other. Furthermore, it clears out toxins that impair brain function. Staying hydrated treats Parkinson’s disease and comprehensively improves brain functions.
Pro tip: take your medication with a glass of water.
Vitamin D intake
Maintain a proper amount o Vitamin D in your daily diet. Vitamin D is present in fortified milk, meat, mango, and more products. Furthermore, it is a neuroprotective component that improves the immune system and calcium intake.
Nuts as snacks
Appropriate quantities of cashew, almonds, walnut, and other nuts improve brain health. Basically, it helps in treating the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Ilaj Bil Dawa for Parkinson’s Disease (Ra’asha)
Ilaj Bil Dawa treats Parkinsonism as single herbs and Unani medicines.
Single herbs for treating Parkinsonism are as follows:
Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) as a herb of grace
Common Name: Water hyssop, waterhyssop, Brahmi, thyme-leafed gratiola, and Indian pennywort.
The bio-chemical known as bacosides in Brahmi helps in re-building brain tissues by influencing the brain cells. Moreover, it contains antioxidants that clear out toxins from the brain. Bacopa monnieri, aka Brahmi, helps in treating Parkinsonism’s symptoms. The therapeutic herb has medicinal use as a memory enhancer. However, it would be best to take it as per healthcare guidance.
Mucuna pruriens as a neuroprotective herb
Common Name: monkey tamarind, velvet bean, Bengal velvet bean, Florida velvet bean, Mauritius velvet bean, Yokohama velvet bean, cowage, cowitch, lacuna bean, and Lyon bean
Velvet beans contain L dopa, amino acids, and alkaloids, specifically isoquinoline. Thus, these chemical components work in neuroprotective activity. Velvet beans work as a neuroprotective component. Indeed, research has indicated its medicinal effects for Parkinson’s disease. The pharmaceutical companies use velvet beans as an active pharmaceutical ingredient in medicines for treating Ra’asha.
Withania somnifera treats neurological disorders.
Common Name: Winter Cherry, Indian ginseng, Poison gooseberry
Ginseng effectively improves memory and directly prevents degenerative brain diseases. The neuroprotective effect of ginseng may be helpful in the prevention of depression. Indirectly, enhanced memory can alleviate anxiety. Hence, it also treats Parkinson’s symptoms.
Curcuma longa treat traumatic brain
Common name: Turmeric
Turmeric contains antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and lipophilic properties that improve cognitive ability. Moreover, turmeric contains curcumin as a chemical constituent. Indeed, it decreases Beta-amyloid plaques, delayed degradation of neurons, metal-chelation, and decreased microglia formation. Thus, it improves the overall memory in Parkinsonism patients.
Gingko Biloba increase blood flow
Common Name: Maidenhair tree
Ginkgo Biloba extract increases the blood flow to the brain and acts as an antioxidant. Research has stated that it improves the working memory of a person. An experiment had conducted to conclude its effect on the brain. Thus, it has impressively improved the brin functionality and cognitive power.
Camellia sinensis, a naturally stimulating tea
Common Name: green tea(unoxidized), black tea (semi-oxidized), tea plant
Green tea (Camellia Sinensis) diminishes stress, worry, and anxiety as a natural stimulant. Furthermore, it allows the brain to focus and concentrate better. The beneficial effects of green tea include helping in coping with stress. Thus, it also treats Parkinson’s disease.
The Unani formulation for Parkinson’s disease is as follows:
(majorly Khameera Gaozaban Ambri Jawahar, Khamira Badam, Khameera Gaozaban Ambri, Khameera Danayiee)
|Khamiras substantially works as a brain tonic. Indeed, it strengthens the brain and also improves brain function.|
|2.Majun Jograj Guggul||It treats nervine disorder; hence it has medicinal benefits for all neurological diseases.|
|3.Itrifal Ustukhuddus||It has proven beneficial for Parkinson’s disease. All three ingredients improve brain activity.|
|4.Qurs Naqra Murakkab||It has proven beneficial for Parkinson’s disease. All three ingredients improve brain activity.|
|5.Roghan Labub Saba||Indeed, it is a massage oil that relieves stress and also treats insomnia.|
|6.Majoon Najah||It treats psychosis as well as melancholia.|
|7.Roghan Kahu||It helps eliminate the dryness of the brain as Parkinsonism causes dryness of organs.|
- Srivastav, S., Fatima, M. and Mondal, A. C.
Srivastav, S., Fatima, M. and Mondal, A. (2017) “Important medicinal herbs in Parkinson’s disease pharmacotherapy”, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 92, pp. 856-863. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.05.137.
- Food, 8.
Food, 8. (2022) 8 Impressive Benefits of Brahmi: The Medicinal Ayurvedic Herb, NDTV Food. Available at: https://food.ndtv.com/health/8-impressive-benefits-of-brahmi-the-medicinal-ayurvedic-herb-1682250
- Lampariello, L. R., Cortelazzo, A., Guerranti, R., Sticozzi, C. and Valacchi, G.
Lampariello, L. et al. (2012) “The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens”, Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 2(4), pp. 331-339. doi: 10.1016/s2225-4110(16)30119-5.
- Lee, S. and Rhee, D.
Lee, S. and Rhee, D. (2017) “Effects of ginseng on stress-related depression, anxiety, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis”, Journal of Ginseng Research, 41(4), pp. 589-594. doi: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.01.010.
- Mishra, S. and Palanivelu, K.
Mishra, S. and Palanivelu, K. (2008) “The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on<i>Alzheimer′s disease</i>: An overview”, Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 11(1), p. 13. doi: 10.4103/0972-2327.40220.
- H, I., B, M. and DJ, H.
H, I., B, M. and DJ, H. (2017) “Neurochemical and behavioral effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) as observed in animals exposed to restraint stress”, Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 30(2), p. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/286490