Abu-’Ali al-Husayn ibn Abdallah ibn e Sina is commonly known as Avicenna in Europe. In Islamic history, he is the most substantial philosopher, and in the early-modern era, he is the most influential personality. He was born in Afshana (Central Asia) and is well known as a physician and as a polymath. His great work The Canon (Al-Qanun fi’l-Tibb) is considered a medical textbook taught in the Islamic world and the West until the pre-modern period. As a philosopher, his book The cure (Al-Shifa) had a pivotal impact on Thomas Aquinas and European scholasticism (d. 1274).
Primarily, he was concerned with the concept of life and understanding one’s existence in the world. His philosophy was an attempt to build a comprehensive and coherent system that would harmonize the religious demands of Islamic culture. Due to this, he is also known as the first great Islamic philosopher. His philosophical space in which he articulated God as the Essential Existence sets the basis of his intellect, soul, and cosmos theories. In the late twentieth century, research found him within Neoplatonic and Aristotelian traditions. His connection with the Neoplatonic is uncertain. Despite accepting some vital aspects such as emanationist cosmogony, he excluded the theory of Neoplatonic epistemology and pre-existent soul.
Apart from philosophical theories, his other work lies in the field of Natural sciences, Mathematics, and Musical theory. In Islamic science (ulum), there is a series of commentaries on certain chapters and Qur’anic verses that reveal a skilled hermeneutical method of a philosopher and his attempt to cope with the revelation. Ibn-Sina’s influence spreads in medieval Europe through the conversion and translation of his work in Spain. Due to his immediate impact on the Islamic world, he was called “la pandemie avicennienne” by Michot.
Ibn-e- Sina’s Biography
Ibn-e-Sina took his first breath in 980 in a village called Afshana (now known as Uzbekistan) in Transoxiana near Bukhara during the dying days of the Samanid dynasty . His father was a local governor of Samanid, and at a very early age, his parents shifted to Bukhara (the capital of Samanid). In Bukhara, he studied medicine and fiqh (Hanafi jurisprudence) with Isma‘il Zahid (d. 1012). An excellent physician’s library and training at the Samanid court helped Avicenna in self-education of philosophy .
According to his autobiography, by the age of 10, he had memorized the Quran, and at the age of 18, he claimed to have masters in all-natural sciences. At this age, he learned and studied under a well-known philosopher Natili, joined the Nuh ibn Mansur’s (r. 976-997) Samanid court, and entered the field as a practicing physician. He was also in an administration post after the death of his father. Although he was interested and excelled in many fields, the huge work of his life was based on theology, philosophy, and medicine .
After the Qarakhanids took over Bukhara and the fall of the Samanid dynasty around 999 CE, he went to Gurganj in Khwarazm, fleeing persecution. He then left again and went to Jurjan in Khurasan to seek patrons to sustain his endeavors. There, he got a chance to meet with his scribe and disciple Juzjani. After spending a year with him, he joined Buyid service as a practicing physician, first in Rayy with Majd al-Dawla and then in Hamadan in 1015. There, he became Shams al-Dawla’s vizier. In 1021, he became Kakuyid ‘Ala’ al-Dawla’s vizier and wrote a significant Persian summa, the Danishnama-yi’ Ala’I of philosophy, for him. He died in 1037 CE in Hamadan due to an abdominal ailment, and his mausoleum still stands in Hamadan in his honor .
The work of Ibn e Sina has been divided into the following categories according to the content: Forty-three works in medicine, 31 in theology, 26 in Physics, 24 in philosophy, 23 in Psychology, 22 in logic, 15 in Mathematics, and 5 in the interpretation of the Holy Quran. In addition, he has also written many treatises on music, love, asceticism, and various stories .
Ibn e Sina wrote his two works under the impact of al-Farabi in Bukhara. His earliest work was Maqala fi’l-nafs (a Compendium on the Soul) that he devoted to the Samanid leader. His first work established the intangibility of the intellect or rational soul without turning to Neoplatonic insistence on the theory of pre-existence. The second work, al-Hikma al-‘Arudiya (Philosophy for the Prosodist), was on metaphysics that he wrote for a local scholar. It was his first attempt at the philosophy of Aristotle.
Besides the Canon of medicine (Al-Qanun), he wrote many books on medicines in which he discussed the queries that were asked by the physicians of that time. Among these books, “En-Nebd,” “Risaletu fi el-edevijjeh el-kalbijjeh,” and “Al-Kulendz” are included. It is also stated that Ibn e Sina has also written poems (rejjes) on medicine and one of his poems consisted of a thousand verses.
Encyclopedias of Philosophy
Ibn e Sina writes three encyclopedias of philosophy. His first philosophical work, al-Shifa (The Cure), has a remarkable impact on scholasticism through its translation into Latin. He wrote two other philosophical encyclopedias in Isfahan for a Buyid ruler, prince Ala’ al-Dawla. The first one was Danishnama-yi ‘Ala’I, also known as The Book of Knowledge. It follows one of his own epitomes, Al-Najat (The Salvation). Al-Ghazali used this book of knowledge as a base for his Arabic book Maqasid al-falasifa, also known as Goals of the Philosophers. The second one was Al-Isharat wa’l-Tanbihat which is famous as Pointers and Reminders. This work represents the mature thinking of Ibn e Sina on diverse metaphysical and logical issues.
In the Islamic medicine heritage, the names of numerous outstanding physicians and medical works shine due to their great impacts, but Ibn e Sina’s name and his masterpiece “The Canon” get a remarkable position among all. It took more than 20 years to write it, and it was a synthesis of Galenic, Aristotelian, Indian, Persian, and Arabian medicine. From the 14th to 16th century, it was the main book translated into Latin and taught in many European medical schools until the late 19th century. The Canon of medicine is divided into five main books (Kitaab) and contains almost 1 million words . Every 1 of these five volumes is divided into chapters (taleem), parts (fen), sub-chapters (jumla), and sections (fasal).
The first volume of this encyclopedic work consists of medical principles, the second volume covers the individual drugs, the third is a compendium of organ-specific diseases, and the fourth volume covers the systematic illnesses and contains a section of recommended preventive measures, whereas the last section discusses the compound medicines. This collection was both prescient and comprehensive, as all chapters were devoted to preventive medicine, exercise, and travel medicine. Indeed, Avicenna (Ibn e Sina) was attributed with diverse medical discoveries and observations such as identifying the transmission potential of airborne diseases, providing solutions to many psychiatric problems, suggesting the forceps used in complicated deliveries, distinguishing pleurisy from mediastinitis, distinguishing peripheral from central facial paralysis, and explaining trigeminal neuralgia and guinea worm infection .
Ibn Sina’s Work on Stroke in the Canon of Medicine
Ibn e Sina has mentioned two common causes of stroke (sekteh) in his book The Canon of medicine (Al-Qanun fi’l-Tibb). The first cause that he cited is the brain vessels blockage, and the second cause is the blockage of “sensitive and mobile spirit,” also known as the affective spirit of the brain. The recent scientific research shows that the first cause that Ibn e Sina has mentioned in the book is very similar to the present concept. However, the concept of the second cause is based on humoral theory (nazaria-e-akhlat). Humoral theory is based on four humors which are blood (dam) that contains wet and hot properties, phlegm (balgham) that has wet and cold properties, black bile (Sauda) that has dry and cold qualities, and yellow bile (safra) that has dry and hot properties. The Canon of medicine explained that the physical health of an individual depends on the balance of these humors, and any imbalance, either slight or excessive, can cause illness .
Ibn e Sina also explained that blockage of vessels occurs in two categories which are ischemia and collapse. According to his observations, phlegm (balgham) and blood (dam) humors can cause the generation of blocking agents. In addition, he also cited that the risk of brain bleeding or hypertension (Fishar-ul-damm) increases with the increase in blood (dam) humor. He connected atherosclerosis (Tasallube Sharaeen) with phlegm humor and hemorrhagic stroke with blood humor. He further explained that people with cold and wet natures are more prone to stroke .
Ibn e Sina has explained the following stroke manifestations
He has explained that blocked brain vessels and canals can induce asphyxia. He also discussed that ischemia or embolus could block the vessels.
Here Ibne Sina agreed with the concept of Socrates and stated that hemiplegia (falij) is a common symptom of stroke. He stated that in some conditions, stroke could cause bilateral paralysis (laqwa) without causing any effects on the limbs. He also said that the patient seems to be dead as he has no respiration or movement, but in reality, he is not dead.
Other common symptoms that Ibn e Sina has explained for stroke are dizziness (chakar), darkened vision, vertigo (Daurane sar), jugular vein engorgement with headache (Dard-e-Sar), weakness, tremor, anxiety, dark urine, and teeth grinding during sleep.
The meditation that Ibn e Sina has described for the treatment of stroke is essentially the use of herbal medicines that can be taken nasally (Anfi), topically, orally, and anally like an enema (Huqna). He also explained the severity of the stroke and suggested non-pharmacological treatments such as venesection (Fasad) and wet or dry cupping (Hijamah) on the upper back and lower neck. These treatments are mostly used for the cure of acute stroke. Ibn e Sina also prescribed herbal exudates suppositories (Shiyaf), laxative enemas, laxative enemas with effective medicaments, and effective purgative syrups (Sharbat) to deal with the disorder (Bimari/aalat).
For the cure of chronic (muzmin) or sub-acute stroke, Ibn e Sina suggested that topical and oral applications of medicines are beneficial. He also recommended topical application of essential herbal oils and massage (dalak) on the limbs for cerebral (Dimaghi) problems. Oral application of multi-components preparations in liquid or solid forms such as decoctions (Joshandah), pills (Habb), tablets (Qurs), and gargles (kavala) are also suggested by Ibn e Sina .
Ibn Sina’s Treatise On Medicine Testing
In Ibn-e-Sina’s time, the diseases and their treatments were dependent on temperaments and humoral theory (nazaria-e-akhlat). There is no doubt that the theory of humor belonged to Greek, but over time, it had transformed and included new components through the influence of Galenic medicine. The four humors (Akhlat), also known as body fluids, were blood (Dam), yellow bile (Safra), phlegm (Balgham), and black bile (Sauda). At the same time, their temperaments (mizaj) are cold (barid), hot (har), dry (yabis), and moist (ratab). The treatment (ilaj) of each disease was dependent on the humor of the patient and their temperaments . Not only the patient but each treatment also had specific mizaj. So, the physicians were finding the right balance between the disease and treatment. Here, Ibn e Sina offered his services and presented his drug testing treaties.
There is a chapter in the Canon of medicine (2nd volume) which deals with the identification of medicinal characteristics and strength through experimentation. In this chapter, Avicenna states that through experimentation, we will understand the complete strength of any medicine only if some conditions are followed. The conditions that he stated were:
- “The medicine under examination must not be affected by foreign substances, cold, or heat. It must be pure and foreign components do not change its essences and add impurities to that medicine.”
Here, Ibn e Sina stresses the proper storage and purity of medicines, which means that if any drug is not producing the desired results, it must be due to these factors. He also elaborated this point in a separate chapter of this book (volume 2). He explained that the properties of any medicine could be weakened, enhanced, or changed by burning, boiling, freezing, grinding, washing, mixing, or storing in the close proximity of other medicines.
2. “The medicine must only be examined for one disease, and if a person has more than one disease, and each disease demands a different treatment, we cannot be sure which medicine was useful to cure the patient as the treatments are antagonistic.”
Here Ibn e Sin focuses on the consideration of confusing factors in the design of a testing procedure. By considering that the patient must have one disease, he is suggesting that the modern exclusion and inclusion criteria are equivalent. Here, in this case, the inclusion criterion is that the patient has the disease of interest A, and the exclusion criterion is that the patient has disease B.
3. “Always test the medicine for contradictory disease states, and if the medicine is beneficial for both, then we cannot say that the drug is beneficial for a specific disease state.”
In this statement, Ibn e Sina stressed the testing of medicines in different disease states. In the Unani medicine system, a disease state is a specific medical condition in which particular temperaments and humor are involved. This statement was in contrast to the Razi statement, which proposes testing in a control group, whereas Ibn e Sina suggested testing a single medicine in various disease states (populations) to determine the efficacy of the medicine.
4. “The strength of the medicine must be equivalent to the disease severity. So, it is best to test the medicine in low quantity and then examine it by enhancing the quantity to analyze its effect and to avoid unwanted effects.”
In this condition, Ibn e Sina focuses on the adverse and therapeutic effects of dose-escalation, which are now the focus of modern clinical research phases I and II.
5. “The time of the drug’s therapeutic effect must be noted because if the medicine works immediately, it is obvious that the therapeutic effects are from the medicine, and the medicine has a positive impact on patients’ recovery. However, if the effects are delayed and do not become apparent immediately, or the medicine shows effects only after the first application and then stops showing positive effects, then there is difficulty in determining the true strength of the medicine.”
This condition forces the long-term observation of the drugs. Ibn-e-Sina says that in some cases, the effects of the drugs can be easily identified, and in other cases, the drug takes time to show the true effects. There is also a probability that, in some instances, the true effects of the drug may be confounded. Thus, he suggested that confounders, time to act, and complete observation time must be considered during experimentation. These considerations are the same that physicians are using today for determining the medicine’s activity (side effects and efficacy).
6. “The medicine should be examined for a long time period or for its continued action and check if its effects are real. So, check it in many instances for a long time.”
In this condition, Ibn e Sina emphasized the reliability and reproducibility of the results. He stated that for the effects of any drug to be considered valid, there should be consistency in the effects for a prolonged time period.
7. “In order to determine the true effect and strength of any drug, it must be tested on humans, and then the decision is made. Often it happens that when we test the drug on any other creature, it produces results, but when we test it on humans, it provides opposite results. For example, Aconitum Ferox is an Indian aconite plant that is like a poison for humans but has no effects on birds.”
In this statement, Ibn e Sina concluded that any medicine always needs to be tested on the human for checking its true effectiveness. This concept of Ibn e Sina is astute. He concluded this section with the following words: “All rules as mentioned above need to be followed to understand the therapeutic strength of medicines through experimentation.”
Ibn Sina’s Contribution in the Field of Pulsology
The special book of Ibn e Sina on Pulsology is “Resaley-e-Ragshenasi” . The book was originally written in the Persian language at the request of Isfahan’s governor (Azod aldin Ala ol dole Kakooyeh) in the 11th century. It was never translated into other languages, due to which all non-Persian scientists neglected it. The book consists of nine chapters. In the first chapter, Ibn e Sina has described the basic concepts of humoral medicines and temperaments. The second chapter focuses on the importance of food (Ghiza), its digestion process (Nizam-e-inhizam), and excretory process (Nizam-e-ikhraj-e-Baul).
The third chapter of the book describes the physiology and anatomy of the cardiovascular system. Chapter four explains the parameters that need to be considered for pulse movement diagnosis and artery movements. The book’s fifth chapter covers the investigation of pulse expansion degree, duration of pulse movements, pulse-beat impact on fingers, fullness or emptiness of artery, the structure of artery, duration of the pulse rest period, and coldness or hotness of pulse feeling.
In chapter six of the book, pulses of rhythms were explained. According to Ibn Sina, two completely alike consecutive pulses are called analogous pulses, or if they are not alike, they are diverse pulses. Ibn e Sina also explained the harmonic nature of the pulses and described those pulses that do not have well-time harmony as “dysrhythmic pulses,” and those that have this quality are “rhythmic pulses.” In chapter seven, various types of dysrhythmic pulses are explained, such as heterorhythmic, pararhythmic, and non-rhythmic pulses. In chapter seven, Ibn e Sina has described 13 different types of compound pulses that are thin pulse, thick pulse, deer pulse, massive pulse, wavy pulse, ant-like pulse, vermicular pulse, saw-like or serrate pulse, mouse-tail pulse, two beats pulse, spindle-shaped pulse, tremulous and fallen among pulse.
The last chapter of the book focuses on the causes of various pulse varieties in different situations in different people. For example, according to Ibn e Sina weak pulses are caused by excessive worry, insomnia (Bekhawbi/Saher), excessive exercise, bad humor (Akhla e Radiyya), emaciation, humor movement, and connection with other sensitive body organs. It is also due to the movement of humor around the organs that are close to the heart .
Ibn Sina’s Work on Cardiovascular Diseases
The contributions of Ibn e Sina on heart diseases are not restricted to his book (The Canon of medicine), but he wrote a separate book, ”Kitab al-Adviyt ol Qalbiye” for cardiovascular diseases that contains his experiences, ideas, and method of disease treatment. In the book, he has explained some heart diseases and covered a few other psychological diseases that affect normal cardiac function and organ physiology. In addition, he has discussed seventeen compounds and eight simple natural remedies for cardiovascular diseases. Some of those remedies have been tested and approved by recent research. The book has been translated into Turkish, Latin (Medicamenta Cordialia), and Urdu languages . Ibn e Sina has written that book on the request of the governor of Baghdad “Abul Husayin Ali bin al-Husayn al Husayni”.
The beginning section of the book covers medico philosophical characteristics, and this section is almost significant and original. Although the physiological and anatomical characteristics of the heart are not explained in the book, Ibn e Sina has described the excessive functionality of the heart’s left cavity. He has explained the ultra-biological and psychological heart functions. The diseases that he has mentioned in the book are:
- Unconsciousness (Ghashi)
- Heart palpitation (Kafaqan)
- Difficulty in breathing (Tawahhush-e-Qalb)
In addition to these diseases, Ibn e Sina has explained the effects of various psychological diseases such as anxiety (Izteraab-e- Nafsaani), stress (Zahini tanao), and depression on the cardiovascular system. In the first chapter of the book, Ibn e Sina discusses the reasons for the heart’s weakness. Then he explained the analysis of basic characteristics of four natural elements (water, air, soil, and fire). Then in the second chapter, he covered the simple drugs and compound drugs formulations (Morakkabat) to cure heart diseases. Before explaining the remedies, he has divided the drugs into various categories. He has included diuretics, stimulants (Moharrik), laxatives (muallein e ama), and warming, cooling, and nauseous agents, among these categories. He has also discussed the explanation of each agent in detail. In addition, he has explained the unique properties of each medicine as being cold, hot, dry, or moist. In this book of Ibn e Sina, he has discussed 17 compound formulations that are derived from 18 minerals, 62 herbs, and 3 animals. He has also discussed 83 samples of drugs and how they are effective for heart diseases.
Furthermore, Ibn e Sina has mentioned his personal experiences and clinical notes in the book. He mentioned all the drugs he used to treat the diseases. Most of the prescriptions in the book are based on his clinical experience that definitely increases the importance and value of the book. He has also described the pharmaceutical properties, various dosage forms, drug strength, various application techniques, therapeutic and preservative methods. Various researches have been done on the drugs he has mentioned in the book, such as “zarnab” which is a drug that he has mentioned in the book that helps the heart to relax. According to recent research, zarnab has the property of blocking calcium channels .
Avicenna’s Herbal Remedies for Burn Wound Healing
In his masterpiece “The Canon of medicine’, Ibn e Sina has mentioned various herbal remedies for various diseases. He has not only explained the use of natural herbs for the cure of diseases but also explained the use of herbs for the prevention of various diseases.
Herbal drugs that Ibn e Sina has mentioned in his book for the prevention of blistering are:
Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.)
According to Ibn e Sina, when this herb is used in combination with olive oil (roghan e zaitoon), it provides relief to wounds (Zakhm), hot inflammations, and burns. It is also used as a plaster to cure burn wounds and prevent blistering by cooking its fruit with wine. From its ash, a form of a medical ointment (Marham) is made that offers the same results.
Gum Arabic Tree (Acacia Arabica)
Ibn e Sina has mentioned this herb as Aqaqia in his book the Canon, and it is the best herb that can cure hot swelling and fire burns when used in a mixture with egg white.
Oriental Plane Tree (Platanus orientalis)
The name of this drug is used as Dulb in the book, and it is useful to cure burns through its bark decoction with vinegar (Sirka).
Betel Nut (Areca catechu L.)
The temperament (mizaj) of this herb is dry and cold in the third degree, and Ibn e Sina has mentioned this drug as Faufal in the Canon. From his perspective, this herb is useful for hard and hot swellings.
Common Pellitory (Parietaria off)
The temperament (mizaj) of this herb is dry and cold in the second degree, and Ibn e Sina has mentioned this drug with the name of Hashishah al-zujaj in the Canon. This herb is used to cure swelling, and its leaves can cure fire burns, erysipelas (Surkh Bada), and phlegmatic swellings.
Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.)
The temperament (mizaj) of this herb is first degree cold and second degree dry, and it is mentioned as Hinna in the Canon. Its decoction is used as a burns douche.
Black Nightshade (Solanum nigrum L)
The temperament (mizaj) of this herb is first degree cold and second degree dry, and it is mentioned as Inab al-thalab in the Canon. This herb can be used as the best plaster for hot external and internal swellings.
Jews Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr, Malva sylvestris L.)
This herb is moist and cold in the first degree and is mentioned with the name of Khubbazi in the Canon book. In combination with olive oil, its leaves are beneficial for curing burns. Its douche also offers the same effects.
Vinegar (Acetum vinegar)
Vinegar (Sirka) is used by the name of Khal by Ibn e Sina in his book The Canon, and it is produced from both cold and hot substances. Both degrees are tenuous, but the dominance can be observed in coldness. The vinegar, which has pungent characteristics, is hot in nature, and the one that has no pungent characteristics is cold and moist in nature. For therapeutic purposes, its application is useful to cure scabies (Jarab), ringworms (Qooba), creeping ulcers, and burns.
Camphor (Cinnamomum comphora L.)
Ibn e Sina has mentioned this drug as Kafur in The Canon, and it is dry and cold in the third degree in temperament (mizaj). It prevents and cures hot swellings.
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)
The temperament (mizaj) of this herb is second-degree dry and first-degree cold. Ibn e Sina has mentioned this drug as Kuzbara in the Canon. When it is applied with vinegar and white lead, it is useful to prevent hot swellings.
Great Plantain (Plantago major L.)
In the Canon, this herb is known as lisan al-hamal, and it contains less moisture, so it is quite dry in temperament. It is ideal for burns, hot swellings, herpes (Namla), ulcers, and urticaria (Shara, Chapaki).
Rose (Rosa damascena Mill, Rosa centifolia L.)
This drug is first-degree cold and second-degree dry and is mentioned as Ward in the book Canon. Plaster is made from the decoction of rose powdered flowers that helps to dissolve hot inflammations. In addition, it is the best drug to cure ulcers, and in chronic ulcers, it promotes granulation.
Sandalwood (santalum sp.)
In temperament (mizaj), it is the second degree (last phase) and third-degree cold, and second-degree dry. It helps dissolve hot swellings and offer relief, and in Canon, it is mentioned with the name of Sandal by Ibn e Sina.
Olive Oil (Olea europaea L)
The oil (Roghan) obtained from mature olives (Zaitoon) is moderately hot and becomes moderately dry or moist when treated with water. So, ripe olives are hot in temperament, and its oils are moist in temperament. And if the olive is unripe, its leaves and barks are cold. In the Canon of medicine, it is mentioned with the name Zaitun (al-zait) and is locally used to prevent the creation of blisters in burns .
Avicenna and Modernity
In the third volume of the Canon of Medicine, Ibn e Sina has described internal organ diseases. He particularly stated the detailed description of gastric ulcer and gastritis (Waram-e- mi’da) symptoms that are close to the modern world description, such as heartburn, pain, vomiting (Qay/ Qai) , and in serious cases, bleeding. In explaining ulceration, Ibn e Sina stated that when the food particles reach the ulcer, pain occurs. He also used oral health as a disease indicator, and in modern research, the same symptoms and indicators are used with modern pathogenesis.
Furthermore, Ibn e Sina has provided data on intestinal (Anth) and stomach diseases (Waram-e- Mi’da) caused by an individual’s reaction to rapidly changing conditions of the environment. He stated that an individual’s interaction with the environment, response, and heredity are considered in analyzing the cause and origin of any digestive system disease. So, for the individuals who have heredity digestive system diseases, Ibn e Sina has recommended particular food items. According to modern-day researchers, almost 520 plants have been described in the Canon of medicine by Ibn e Sina. The table given below is the list of herbs taken from the Ibn e Sina’s heritage and still used in the modern world medicine system .
- Apium graveolens L. (Celery)
- Cannabis sativa L. (Hemp)
- Asparagus officinalis L. (Sparrow Grass)
- Citrullus colocynthis L. (Colocynth)
- Ferula assafoetida L. (Devil’s Dung)
- Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Quince)
- Pyrus malus L. (Apple)
- Juglans regia L. (English Walnut)
- Malva silvestris L. (Common Mallow)
- Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon Balm)
- Melilotus officinalis L. (Sweet Yellow Clover)
- Papaver somniferum L. (Opium Poppy)
- Pistacia vera L. (Pistachio)
- Petroselinum crispum (Mill). (Parsley)
- Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate)
- Sesamum indicum L. (Sesame)
- Rosa damascena Mill. (Damask Rose)
- Trachyspermum ammi L. (Ajwain)
By reviewing all the discussions, it is concluded that medicine (Unani Tibb) both in Europe and the Islamic world was under the influence of Ibn e Sina heritage from the 11th century to the 17th century with a great focus on his masterpiece The Canon (Al-Qanun fi’l-Tibb). The impact of his work in the field of medicine has appeared in various dimensions such as publications, treatment, and education. But in the field of medicine and treatment, his book Canon is the basis of setting medical views and infrastructure of medical works around the world.
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